The tacit knowledge that cultural competence entails is not easily described or demonstrated. There is no room for disagreement or different viewpoints”. Over 20 years ago, in response to the expectation of an ever increasingly diverse student population, Foxman and Easterling (1996) called for marketing professors to incorporate cultural diversity into the classroom via course content, pedagogical approaches, and course materials. Nursing Education Today, 25(2), 102-111. The articles in this issue fall into two general categories and are arranged from broad diversity topics to … To address this issue, the authors detail the development of a course to train marketing students to recognize, understand, and value people with disabilities as consumers, producers, and relevant stakeholders. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded and thematically analyzed. Nelson Laird, Thomas F., and Mark E. Engberg. The atmosphere is good, there is idle talk, joking and laughing in the conversation between the young males and the police. Other research has pointed to the importance of perceptions of organizational diversity efforts for outcomes in human service organization (Mor Barak et al., 2016), especially for racial/ethnic minorities (Pitts, 2009). In his opinion, the question should have been whether cultural competence is a resource or not. However, the minority interviewees also believed that being bilingual, and having knowledge of other backgrounds and cultural practices, would be beneficial in problem solving. The authors acknowledge the support provided to Mariann S. Leirvik from the Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, Oslo Metropolitan University. However, NPUC’s definition of minority students was quite broad and has been quite recently changed. Leslie (2019) argues that diversity initiative in organizations may backfire and have unintended consequences. The final two articles in this special issue describe specific course projects designed to support diversity education in business schools and the marketing curriculum. With respect to admissions into NPUC bachelor education, we see that students with a clear family connection to the Norwegian majority (i.e., students born abroad to Norwegian parents, students with one Norwegian parent) make up the largest part of the ethnic minority group (as defined by the NPUC). The Journal of International Education Research (JIER) welcomes articles in all areas of international education research. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. ], Responding to needs of higher analytical competence in the police: Master programmes at the Norwegian Police University College, Representative bureaucracy and fire service performance, Barriers to achieving ethnic diversity in the Norwegian police service, The experience of ethnic minority police officers in Britain: Under-recruitment and racial profiling in a performance culture, Behind the window dressing: Ethnic minority police perspectives on cultural diversity, Cultural diversity at work: The effects of diversity perspectives on work group processes and outcomes, Gender dynamics in science and technology: From the leaky pipeline. Data collection from medical students, because of their complicated and overloaded schedules, is very difficult. Officer race and police-involved homicides of black citizens, Trials of loyalty: Ethnic minority police officers as ‘outsiders’ within a greedy institution, Perceived similarity and complementarity as predictors of subjective person–organization fit, Diversity management, job satisfaction, and performance: Evidence from U.S. Federal agencies, Representative bureaucracy, race, and policing: A survey experiment, Racialisation in police stop and search practice—The Norwegian case, Unlocking the benefits of diversity: All-inclusive multiculturalism and positive organizational change, Investigating perceptions of race and ethnic diversity among prospective police officers, Diversity within police forces in Europe: A case for the comprehensive view, Effects of ethnic diversity: The position of minority workers in two Dutch organizations, Marginalised voices in the inclusive recruitment discourse: A dilemma of inclusion/exclusion in the (Swedish) police, Controversial diversity: Diversity discourses and dilemmas among Swedish police recruits, Black or blue: Racial profiling and representative bureaucracy, Representing blue representative bureaucracy and racial profiling in the Latino community, National, Educational, and Organizational Context, Diversity in Education and Organization: From Political Aims to Practice in the Norwegian Police Service, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/, https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage, https://doi.org/10.18261/issn.1891-1781-2017-01-05, https://doi.org/10.1080/10967494.2014.874253, https://doi.org/10.1080/10439460500310053, https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870120049824, https://doi.org/10.1080/13691830220124369, https://doi.org/10.1017/S1743923X0624114X, https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2013.723251, https://doi.org/10.1080/15614263.2019.1664302, https://doi.org/10.1080/01442870120112700, https://doi.org/10.18261/issn.2703-7045-2020-03-05, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2006.00572.x, https://doi.org/10.1108/13527601011038741, https://lovdata.no/dokument/NLE/lov/2017-06-16-51, https://www.regjeringen.no/en/topics/equality-and-social-inclusion/id922/, https://doi.org/10.1080/23303131.2016.1138915, https://www.newsinenglish.no/2019/08/05/police-under-fire-after-local-brawl/, https://www.nb.no/items/URN:NBN:no-nb_digibok_2008060200035?page=1, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2008.01977.x, http://nsddata.nsd.uib.no/webview/index.jsp?v=2&hx0026;submode=ddi&study=http%3A%2F%2F129.177.90.161%3A-1%2Fobj%2FfStudy%2FNSD2147&mode=documentation&top=yes&language=en, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10612-006-9012-2, https://www.ssb.no/en/befolkning/statistikker/folkemengde/aar-per-1-januar, https://www.ssb.no/en/statbank/table/12625/, https://doi.org/10.1080/15614263.2018.1428097, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1998.tb01688.x, https://doi.org/10.3384/rela.2000-7426.rela9106, https://doi.org/10.1080/10439463.2019.1611818, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2008.00905.x, Andersen, L. V. B., Lilleaas, U.-B., Ellingsen, D. (, Andrews, R., Ashworth, R., Meier, K. J. Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion That Matter Academic medical institutions’ idea of addressing institutional and systemic racism often begins and ends with naming a diversity … Selectively indexed journals contain an average of 50-79% education-related articles and are critical to topic area coverage; ERIC applies a manual article-by-article selection process and indexes only the articles that conform to the standard and criteria outlined in the ERIC selection policy. These perspectives take on (at least) three forms. Much of the focus around diversity and inclusion has centered on race and ethnicity. He also describes how minority bureaucrats may impact outcomes for minority citizens though their impact on majority colleagues. Firstly, we have showed that diversity reform and targeted recruitment of ethnic minority students into police education is not in itself enough to create a learning environment where diversity is experienced as valued. In 2012, the National Alliance on Mental Illness reported that there were significant numbers of students with diagnosable mental health disorders. Lim (2006) emphasizes how positive outcomes for minority citizens may come about through mechanisms relating to minority bureaucrats’ identification, shared values and beliefs, empathic understanding, communication quality, and striving for impartiality in their dealings with minority citizens (direct effects). The plan is anchored in various white papers, laws and official guidelines (e.g., Ministry of Children and Equality, n.d., 2018), which serve as a backdrop for the arguments used and the targets set. When the policy is communicated from the top-management and (attempted) implemented in the organization, what employees perceive as the underlying argumentation may however differ. Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. The size of this group of students (4.2%) is below the NPUC target and it is substantially smaller than the percentage of immigrants and their children in the Norwegian population (i.e., 17.8%, Statistics Norway, 2019a, 2019b). First respondents were asked to indicate whether they themselves had immigrated to Norway or had parents who were immigrants. In four logistic regression analyses, we assessed whether ethnic background could predict perceiving a justification for diversity management as emphasized or not. The premium Pro 50 GB plan gives you the option to download a copy of your binder to your local machine. We argued initially that diversity perspectives may be key to understanding how the passive representation of minorities translates into active representation in bureaucracies. Genre/Form: Periodicals: Additional Physical Format: Online version: Diversity in higher education (OCoLC)761182862: Document Type: Journal / Magazine / Newspaper Despite differences in societal and organizational contexts, our results regarding the ethnic composition and challenges in increasing diversity correspond well with findings from other European countries (van Ewjik, 2012) and expands current research. In general, ethnic majority officers found cultural competence difficult to define and describe. Grier then goes on to describe the content of an experiential, problem-based, upper-level undergraduate course. The survey was carried out with the help of the HR-department in the NPD which provided us with postal addresses of all relevant employees. Rather, the perceived emphasis was on diversity as a source of trust and equal treatment, corresponding to Ely and Thomas' (2001) access-and-legitimacy and discrimination-and-fairness perspectives. Changes, however, have been difficult to achieve. Finally, from the integration-and-learning perspective, the rationale for diversifying is to inform and enhance work processes. For example, the odds of a child born to parents in Dubuque (Iowa), San Jose (California), and Washington, D.C., rising from the bottom to the top fifth were 17.9%, 12.9%, and 10.5% respectively. Yet the stigma regarding mental illness abounds on college campuses. What we consistently found, however, was that ethnic minority NPS employees had lower odds of perceiving each of the four arguments as justifications for the organizations diversity efforts than ethnic majority police employees; societal mandate (OR =0.60 [95% CI = 0.39, 0.91]), equal treatment (OR= 0.47 [95% CI = 0.32, 0.67]), trust in society (OR = 0.45 [95% CI = 0.30, 0.68]), and competence development (OR = 0.70 [95%CI = 0.51, 0.97]). There are exceptions to this more general pattern, however, the main point is a policy – practice disconnect. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. We employed an online survey tool (NSD web survey) provided by the Norwegian Centre for Research Data. Diversity is indirectly related to work through an ethnicity-based division of labor (i.e., minority employees are assigned to work with minority clients/customers). This, however, is addressed by Ely and Thomas (2001) in their work on diversity perspectives. In addition, field conversations among the five ethnic minority officers and other police personnel they encountered during the shifts (e.g., leaders and police officers of Norwegian origin other than their partners) were included. Adopting social learning theory as a guiding framework, the course involves the use of roles models and active participation to advance student understanding and retention of the seven principles of universal design: equitable use, flexibility, simplicity, perceptible information, tolerance for error, low physical effort, and physical conditions for approach and use. Based on the admission survey, the total percentage of ethnic minority students was 13.1%. ABOUT THE JOURNAL Frequency: 4 issues/year ISSN: 0195-6744 E-ISSN: 1549-6511 2018 JCR Impact Factor*: 1.316 Ranked #143 out of 243 in Education and Educational Research. Diversity may be viewed within the context of cognitive diversity or the blending of different backgrounds, experiences, and perspectives. Minority students are less likely to seek help for mental health issues since doing so is often looked down upon, particularly in African American and Asian cultures. The NPS is governed by the Ministry of Justice and Public Security, and the National Police Directorate (NPD). Previous research on diversity perspectives among prospective police officers indicate that ethnic minority individuals may enter the police with the expectation that their minority background will contribute to both access and legitimacy, as well as problem solving. Diversity/inclusion and organizations The NPUC also offers master’s degrees (e.g., in police science, criminal investigation, digital forensics, and cybercrime investigations) and more than 90 post graduate study programs (e.g., in leadership, education, investigation, forensic science, operative work and multicultural understanding and diversity). This strand of research has relied largely on studies of documents, official statistics and interviews with key informants. Google Scholar; Egan M. L., Bendick M.. 2008. Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel (2006) note, “Ethnicity is an important element in determining culture and predicting consumer preferences and behaviors. . If the respondents indicated that they themselves or both parents had immigrated to Norway, they were asked to indicate which of two groups of countries/geographical areas best described their origins based on Statistics Norway’s division of the world into two groups: (1) Asia including Turkey, Africa, Latin-America, Oceania except Australia and New Zealand, and European countries outside the EU/EEA” and (2) EU/EEA countries, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. These perspectives represent a skepticism towards ethnic minorities within the NPS – ranging from “they don’t bring any extra competence” to questioning their capabilities. We stress that this skepticism was not the main perspective on diversity among the Norwegian majority students and employees. As argued by Garces and Jayakumar (2014), however, numerical representation is necessary, but not sufficient, to gain the educational benefits of diversity. This limited space for differences also extends to the discussion climate among the students, which one interviewee described: “there’s quick consensus on issues that are complex to understand. The interviewees were all first- or third-year bachelor students from the four NPUC campuses. By continuing to browse At the time of the study, all these students were considered ethnic minorities by the NPUC. Table 1. Special Issue: Representing Diversity in Education: Student identities in contexts of learning and instruction Special Issue: Classroom-Based Talk Receive an update when the latest issues in this journal … Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 7 (4), 227–234. These numbers resonate well with the qualitative findings – diversity as important to gain the public’s trust was perceived as a clear justification for the diversity strategy, whereas competence development was less emphasized. This provides an important backdrop to the interviews with NPUC students, and interviews and fieldwork among NPS officers, addressing perspectives on ethnic diversity. In “Incorporating Diversity in Marketing Education: A Framework for Including All People in the Teaching and Learning Process,” Rivera, Arrese, Sádaba, and Casado (2020) draw attention to the lack of research on diversity and inclusion–related course development, particularly inclusive marketing courses. Antiracism and Social Movements in Norway: The Importance of Critical Events. First, results challenge stereotypes regarding ethnicity or nationality as catchall predictors of cheating and unethical behavior by demonstrating that a tolerance for cheating and unethical behavior varies within cultures and nationalities. The theoretical processes outlined by Lim (2006) describing how positive outcomes for minority citizens may come about through minority bureaucrats’ identification, shared values and beliefs, empathic understanding, communication quality, and impartiality in dealing with minority citizens, can also be found in our material. Alert; RSS Feeds. Most recent (RSS) Most cited (RSS) Issue. It is this income inequality and society’s lack of focus on economic diversity in higher education that prompted Michaels (2016) to assert, “Here’s another name for rich people’s malls—universities . The acceptance rate of Journal of Diversity in Higher Education is still under calculation. Within the context of cultural diversity and tied closely to ethnicity are the socialization experiences resulting from geographic origin. One officer explained this by describing that he meets youths differently than his ethnic Norwegian colleagues by preserving minority youths’ “face” and not expressing an attitude that indicates “I am the police and you’ll have to listen”. One of the ethnic minority officers, although asking “control questions”, spoke in a relaxed and friendly manner. GO TO SECTION. The NPD has had two main strategic plans outlining the NPS’ diversity strategy (NPD; 2003, 2008). When the recruitment phase was over, there was substantially less focus on diversity and several students perceived that there was little room to be different. The authors report that there is a significantly disproportionate number of females in business schools, despite women generally outpacing men in both undergraduate and graduate graduation rates. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. My colleagues around me were so enthusiastic about it and this gave me a feeling of being really appreciated. The Journal of Diversity Management (JDM) welcomes manuscripts from authors in academics, business, and government concerning all types of diversity management issues. Finally, we conducted two surveys among all police employees to address the representation of minorities within the NPS and to assess perceived underlying justifications for the NPS’s diversity strategy. First, as educational needs grow to encompass more socially responsible issues and themes, new approaches are needed to design suitable curriculum. The student admission office classify new police students into three categories: (1) students with an immigrant background, including both students who have immigrated themselves and those born in Norway to two immigrant parents, (2) foreign-born students with one or two Norwegian-born parents, and (3) Norwegian-born students with one foreign-born parent. 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