George clearly cleaned the house while he listened to the radio, not because he was listening to the radio. While commas aren’t required here, adding them doesn’t make the sentence incorrect. On the flip side, no post-comma is attached when it acts as a general adverb premodifying a verb, adjective, or … Updated on February 12, 2020 | Proper Punctuation. Here are a few more example sentences using the prepositional function. You can use “rather” after a comma if you’re using it as a parenthetical interrupter. © Linguaholic 2020 | Iseli International Commerce | Privacy Policy | Contact | About Us, The next couple of sections will help you understand how to use a, However, this sentence structure may not be as common as placing it at the end. We must not punctuate it with a comma when it appears at the end of the sentence. Restrictive ⇒Don’t Use a Comma Non-restrictive ⇒ Use a Comma When it is used as an introductory adverb, a comma would be necessary but it has to be dropped when we put instead at the end of the sentence. Use a comma in your dates to separate date and year. While this error is not uncommon in oral speech and informal writing, it is still advantageous to know its more appropriate usage. Again, please note the absence of commas right before or after instead of. Being a free morpheme, the word “in” may fall into four different parts of speech–noun, adverb, adjective, and preposition–depending on how it is used in a sentence. Grammar mistakes, such as misused semicolons and comma splices, should be avoided. George cleaned the house, as his wife had asked him to. Note that such as should not be separated from the list of examples that follows it. However, this sentence structure may not be as common as placing it at the end. A further discussion and additional examples of correct comma usage can be found in Magnum Proofreading’s Guide to Proper English Grammar and Language Usage. Some function as adjectives. Comma before or after however Because you can often use however as a synonym for but, it is worthwhile noting this rule as well. Writers tend to make this mistake when forming sentences in which as separates two independent clauses. For even more information about the comma and other punctuation marks, I recommend the following books, which are available on Amazon. Instead, we could go to Florida for a week-long vacation. If you are a human, do not fill in this field. Although a comma is required when instead is used as an introductory adverb, this sentence structure is not as common as positioning it at the end. It is also an independent clause. More commonly, you will use it after a period or semicolon at the beginning of a sentence, followed by a comma, as a conjunctive adverb to contrast something from the previous sentence. A Final Writing Tip Correct comma replacement depends on whether such as introduces an essential or nonessential clause. The adverb form is only “instead” while the preposition “instead of” is composed of two words taken as one. Do use a comma when “as” can be substituted with “because”. The next couple of sections will help you understand how to use a comma together with the adverb “instead.”. in the middle of the sentence because it would incorrectly function as a conjunction. punctuate it with a comma when it appears at the end of the sentence. Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that are not … Distinguishing the preposition instead of from the adverb form is rather easy. Since the airfare for Hawaii is quite high this summer, we could go to Florida, A comma would only be necessary at the end of a. which is positioned at the beginning of the sentence. Example: My estate goes to my husband, son, daughter-in-law, and nephew. (In this example, the shaded text is an adjective phrase. , we could go to Florida for a week-long vacation. It is not advisable to situate instead in the middle of the sentence because it would incorrectly function as a conjunction. You can also use a comma with a shorter phrase when you want to emphasize it or add a pause for literary effect. To sum, we need not use commas before or after. Appositives act as synonyms for a … Since the airfare for Hawaii is quite high this summer, we could go to Florida instead. Although a comma is required when instead is used as an introductory adverb, this sentence structure is not as common as positioning it at the end. Also, it is recommended to place the adverb. Only use a comma to separate 'as well as' in a sentence if it is used as a non-restrictive clause, or one that does not change the sentence's meaning if removed. After a time phrase that comes before a sentence or independent clause. However, we also have to remember that a noun may also look like a verb ending in -ing called a gerund. Use a comma after a dependent clause at the beginning of a sentence. Well, more often than not, a comma does not come before this adverb, but it may come after it instead. If you want that implied pause to break up the sentence, throw it in. Like because, as can be used as a conjunction or as an adverb. 1. Both of these examples are grammatical. We rarely place a comma after but. In many sentences, if there is no comma before as, then as means “in the way that” or “while.”. You’ve probably heard a lot of things about the comma and may have questions about when to use a comma. When To Use A Comma After But. On top of that, “thus” can be a tricky word. “Instead” may also be paired with “of”, forming the prepositional phrase “instead of” — this case does not directly require commas either. Or to separate days of the … On the other hand, no commas are needed if the sentence contains only one independent clause. The only time we may consider using commas with “instead” is when it becomes a part of a serial list. Writers tend to make this mistake when forming … Read more about the Oxford Comma. There is … Commas before as can be more tricky. Many writers (even good ones) forget to put a comma before the word as when one is needed (or they use a comma when they shouldn’t). Putting a comma before as in this sentence is a mistake. Posted on Published: October 12, 2020 Categories English. We call this kind of writing fault a comma splice wherein two independent clauses are joined in one sentence. Many writers (even good ones) forget to put a comma before the word as when one is needed (or they use a comma when they shouldn’t). The airfare for Hawaii is quite high this summer. The adverb “instead” is equivalent to saying “alternatively” which is supposed to be written either at the beginning or at the end of a sentence. The airfare for Hawaii is quite high this summer. Instead of going to Hawaii, we could choose Florida. Prepositions are always followed by an object which is a noun. A writing tip on when to use commas with such as. It’s me, Marcel. Let’s begin with an example of a complete sentence. Rule 1. After a subordinate clause—one that starts with a subordinating conjunction. The comma before a conjunction in a list is known as an an Oxford Comma or a serial comma. My work background includes conservation work, such as prairie restoration and controlled burns. As a conjunction, “as” is equivalent to “because”. You can safely delete it if you want without losing the context. In general, the comma shows that the words immediately before the comma are less closely or exclusively linked grammatically to those immediately after the comma than they might be otherwise. The megaproject went billions of dollars over budget, as the cost of cement was unexpectedly increased. We could go to Florida instead of going to Hawaii. We could also remove the gerund to further simplify the sentence. Rather, instead, and alternatively are adverbs that can be used to express other options or preferences. is used as an introductory adverb, this sentence structure is not as common as positioning it at the end. A comma would only be necessary at the end of a dependent clause which is positioned at the beginning of the sentence. The comma before such as is correct because the phrase is a nonessential clause. It can also have the same meaning as the words “consequently,” “therefore,” and “as a result of.”. We can join the two clauses with a conjun… I want the cookies. You actually wrote “so that” in your sentence but even if you had just written “so”, you would not need a comma because the “so” could be replaced by “so that.” I also believe that you do not need the comma after the initial phrase. However, she expects to finish her novel by summer. However, they do not mean the same thing, and so it is important to know how the use of a comma changes the meaning of the sentence. Compare that one with another one. Using a Comma after a Fronted Adjective Phrase or Clause Not every phrase or clause that appears at the front of a sentence is an adverbial one. The combination of both will substantially increase our linguistic control over any language that we are trying to acquire. , and alternatively are adverbs that can be used to express other options or preferences. The only time you’ll need a comma after but is when you add an “interrupter” right after it. When an adverbial clause ends a sentence, a comma isn't used because the subordinate conjunction (in this case, as) provides the necessary link to the main clause: The sales report is important as we want to monitor sales. Here’s a tip: Commas can be tricky, but they don’t have to trip you up. I am the proud owner of linguaholic.com. Taking the word but for example, if it is being used to join two independent clauses together then there should be a comma before but. going to the beach, we could go camping this summer. Finally, the only instance necessitating commas around instead is when it appears in series. I wish you’d come with us this summer instead of your colleagues. Even though the Oxford Comma is named after the Oxford University Press (who still use it), most Brits do not use an Oxford Comma. Most of the time, in functions as a preposition of time (in August)  and place (in Detroit). On the other hand, no commas are needed if the sentence contains only one, The only time we may consider using commas with “. which would always be any word acting as a noun and commas are not required at all. Yes, the sentence above still makes sense. Note that, for certain sentences, there is only one correct decision regarding the use of a comma based on the context. Now, how about the preposition instead of? Let’s start simple. Some common adverbs that denote options or preferences are rather, instead,  and alternatively. Commas can be tricky. functions as a preposition of time (in August)  and place (in Detroit). Last summer, we went to Florida instead of Hawaii. The position of a comma can often reflect the sense in which the word is being used. Use commas to offset appositives from the rest of the sentence. All we need to do is check is the word after it. It is also a complete sentence and an independent clause even though it doesn’t have an object as in the first example. Leave a comment. is when it becomes a part of a serial list. After an initial/introductory adverb that modifies a whole sentence or independent clause. In many sentences, if there is no comma before. these words are used differently in sentences. which is supposed to be written either at the beginning or at the end of a sentence. which means “as an alternative or substitute” to something. Adding the comma did not change the meaning of any words in the sentence except for one: as. Some say it is no longer to be used, but some say it is. Before a coordinating conjunction when it separates an independent and dependent clause as an Oxford comma. George cleaned the house, as he listened to the radio. Therefore, it is highly recommended to attach it at the end of the sentence to sound more natural. Again, when it is used as an adverb, you don’t use a comma. For example: Imbued with common sense, Mark is a great choice for the role. The comma is omitted in the first example and is included in the second. Instead is morphologically formed by a process known as compounding–the combination of free morphemes to create a new meaning. If you don’t feel you need it, leave it out. Some common adverbs that denote options or preferences are rather, Although having a similar intent which is to denote the meaning “. Misused semicolons and comma splices are two examples of the types of grammar mistakes that should be avoided. Comma before or after “thus”: The Definitive Guide. See the examples below. is morphologically formed by a process known as compounding–the combination of free morphemes to create a new meaning. The modifier such as street, avenue, and road is essential to the meaning of the sentence: it restricts the general term words to a specific type of word. Add commas to the beginning and end of the nonrestrictive clause. Instead of going to the beach, we could go camping this summer. To sum, we need not use commas before or after instead regardless of its role either as an adverb or preposition in a sentence. Also, it is recommended to place the adverb instead in the sentence’s tail part since native speakers structure their speech and writing this way. When it is used as an introductory adverb, a comma would be necessary but it has to be dropped when we put, Meanwhile, as a preposition, an object needs to be placed after. The second sentence is still grammatical, but it isn’t logical. Commas almost always follow phrases at the beginning of sentences; use the comma to separate the phrase from the independent clause. No comma after such as. Example: When I went to the … The store is closed. An interrupter can be taken out of a sentence and the sentence will still retain its original meaning. As with many comma related questions, the answer depends on whether the phrase in question is restrictive or non-restrictive. Although having a similar intent which is to denote the meaning “as an alternative to something”, these words are used differently in sentences. Since language control entails cognitive flexibility, it can also augment our sense of confidence which, in turn,  has a positive impact on our well-being. If removing the phrase would change the meaning of the sentence, then it is restrictive and a comma should not be used. A comma after “apparently” is used when it acts as a sentence-initial disjunct and when it is used as the last word either in an introductory expression or parenthetical statement. Use commas to separate words and word groups in a simple series of three or more items. And commas often accompany a conjunction , which is a word that connects phrases, clauses, or sentences (e.g., and , because , but , and however ) or any other words or expressions that provide a similar function (e.g., in any case ) . Commas with “instead”: Conclusion To sum, we need not use commas before or after instead regardless of its role either as an adverb or preposition in a sentence. regardless of its role either as an adverb or preposition in a sentence. wherein two independent clauses are joined in one sentence. (Notice how I used it as an adverb in the preceding sentence.) “Rather” is a super word. Use a Comma After an Introductory Word or Phrase. The comma after and is a very hot question. George cleaned the house as he listened to the radio. However, when an adverbial clause begins a sentence, you must use a comma: As we want to monitor sales, the … 7. 1. Comma definition is - a punctuation mark, used especially as a mark of separation within the sentence. However, they are followed by commas too. Read more about commas in lists. Meanwhile, as a preposition, an object needs to be placed after “of” which would always be any word acting as a noun and commas are not required at all. When an adverbial phrase begins a sentence, it’s often followed by a comma but it doesn’t have to be, especially if it’s short. The only exception is when we place an interrupter. Another highly recommended skill is the ability to employ lexical alternatives whenever applicable. The compounded morphemes turns into instead which means “as an alternative or substitute” to something. Hey fellow Linguaholics! going to Hawaii, we could choose Florida. George cleaned the house as his wife had asked him to. Finally, the only instance necessitating commas around, Evening: A Frustratingly Vague Period of Time, “Safe Travels”: Meaning, Usage & Examples. One way to improve writing intricacy is to efficiently make use of punctuations in sentences. Knowing when a comma is needed with the word “thus” depends in part on which definition is used. A comma (,) A comma would be necessary when we use instead as an introductory adverb at the beginning of the sentence. As a result, it should not be set off by commas. After all, you know what a comma is: the punctuation used to mark a division in a sentence, like the separation of words, phrases, a clause, or a sequence. To sum, the main difference of instead and instead of is the part of speech they belong to. It can stand on its own without adding another word. in the sentence’s tail part since native speakers structure their speech and writing this way. As we want to monitor sales is an adverbial clause. Use a comma with “As” as a conjunction. The comma performs a number of functions in English writing. As a rule of thumb, if the phrase is longer than about four words, use the comma. It is my utmost pleasure to share with all of you guys what I know about languages and linguistics in general. However, we do use a comma for the above when it’s written as an appositive. When a word or phrase forms an introduction … “Thus” can mean “in this way” or “like this.”. 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