[36] The Gulf of Mexico is the dominant factor in the climate of Tennessee, with winds from the south being responsible for most of the state's annual precipitation. It was designed by John William Gerard de Brahm and constructed by forces under British Captain Raymond Demeré. Following the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter in April and Lincoln's call for troops from Tennessee and other states in response, Harris began military mobilization, submitted an ordinance of secession to the General Assembly, and made direct overtures to the Confederate government. [53] The settlement was at the intersection of the Wilderness Road, which roughly followed present-day U.S. Route 25E, and the Great Indian Warpath, an east–west pathway that roughly followed what is now U.S. Route 11W. The second has been held continuously by Republicans or their antecedents since 1859. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport. Memphis fell to the Union in June after a naval battle on the Mississippi River in front of the city. These areas became defined as Democratic after the war. The speaker of the state Senate also holds the title of lieutenant governor. Individuals over the age of eighteen (18) years of age have the right to apply for a legal name change in Tennessee by filing a petition with their County’s Chancery Court. About 56% of the electricity generated in Tennessee produces no greenhouse gas emissions. The tribes were as follows: As of 2011, 36.3% of Tennessee's population younger than age 1 were minorities.[83]. The town was located on a river of the same name (now known as the Little Tennessee River), and appears on maps as early as 1725. [118] Major attractions in Chattanooga include Lookout Mountain, the Chattanooga Choo-Choo Hotel, Ruby Falls, and the Tennessee Aquarium, the largest freshwater aquarium in the United States. Famous real-life people named Tennessee. [145] Chattanooga Red Wolves SC became an inaugural member of the third-level USL League One in 2019. [80], According to the 2010 census, 6.4% of Tennessee's population were reported as under age 5, 23.6% under 18, and 13.4% were 65 or older.[81]. Beale Street in Memphis is considered by many to be the birthplace of the blues, with musicians such as W. C. Handy performing in its clubs as early as 1909. The highest court in Tennessee is the state Supreme Court. Personal experiences with the name Tennessee. [50] The first permanent European settlers began arriving in the northeastern part of the state in the late 1760s. In June 2014, the Vanderbilt Commodores baseball team won its first men's national championship by winning the 2014 College World Series. The Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, and the Mississippi River forms its western border. Tennessee has played a critical role in the development of many forms of American popular music, including rock and roll, blues, country, and rockabilly. The geographical center of the state is located in Murfreesboro. [77] Most Tennesseans who self-identify as having American ancestry are of English and Scotch-Irish ancestry. [33] The entirety of the state is in the Mississippi River watershed, except for a small area in Bradley and Polk counties traversed by the Conasauga River, which is part of the Mobile Bay watershed.[34]. [146] An extension of I-69 is proposed to travel through the western part of the state, from South Fulton to Memphis. [57] The Constitution of the State of Tennessee, Article I, Section 31, states that the beginning point for identifying the boundary is the extreme height of the Stone Mountain, where the line of Virginia intersects it, and basically runs the extreme heights of mountain chains through the Appalachian Mountains separating North Carolina from Tennessee past the Native American towns Cowee and Old Chota, thence along the main ridge of Unicoi Mountain to the southern boundary of the state; all the territory, lands and waters lying west of said line are included in the boundaries and limits of Tennessee. [70], In 2010, 4.6% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race), up from 2.2% in 2000. [115]:40 The average person spent $118 per day: 29% on transportation, 24% on food, 17% on accommodation, and 28% on shopping and entertainment. Name Origin. [78][79] In the 1980 census 1,435,147 Tennesseans claimed "English" or "mostly English" ancestry out of a state population of 3,221,354 making them 45% of the state at the time. Since 2000, Tennessee has executed seven prisoners. [138] Tennessee was also a top producer of phosphate until the early 1990s.[139]. The TBI maintains state-of-the-art investigative facilities and is the primary state-level criminal investigative department. 29d Chris Low. Tennessee is the 36th largest by area and the 16th most populous of the 50 states. In 2018, Republican businessman Bill Lee was elected to succeed term-limited Haslam as Tennessee's 50th governor. The state is home to 10 other NCAA Division I programs. [116] Other major attractions include the American Museum of Science and Energy in Oak Ridge, the Bristol Motor Speedway in Bristol, Jack Daniel's Distillery in Lynchburg, and the Hiwassee and Ocoee rivers in Polk County. [115]:44, Tennessee is home to the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the most visited national park in the United States. Many of the modern surnames in the dictionary can be traced back to Britain and Ireland. Tennessee's Constitution requires that each County have an elected Sheriff. I-155 is a branch highway from I-55. Attempting to defraud or mislead 3. But the Union-backing State of Scott was also established at this time, and remained a de facto enclave of the United States throughout the war. [162][163], The Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians is the only federally recognized Native American Indian tribe in the state. 142 likes. BNSF operates a major intermodal facility in Memphis. The same year, 22.9% of the power was produced by coal, 20.3% from natural gas, 12.1% from hydroelectric power, and 1.6% from other renewables. To the west of this narrow strip of land is a wide area of rolling hills and streams that stretches all the way to the Mississippi River; this area is called the Tennessee Bottoms or bottom land. In 1900 African Americans comprised 23.8 percent of the state's population, concentrated in Middle and West Tennessee. The earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through a Native American village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. The state constitution allows no more than two justices of the five-member Tennessee Supreme Court to be from one Grand Division and a similar rule applies to certain commissions and boards. 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